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Paulo Longo Research Initiative
PLRI aims to consolidate ethical, interdisciplinary scholarship on sex work to inform activism and advocacy that will improve the human rights, health and well being of sex workers.
What Is Viramune? Viramune is a drug that is used in modern antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS, in particular HIV1, as well as for the prevention of this disease. As a rule, it is recommended to use it together with other antiretroviral drugs. The active ingredient in Viramune is Nevirapine. The drug is available in the form of a suspension for oral administration, as well as in the form of film-coated tablets. Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) of HIV-1. (Read about nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor here). This substance binds directly to reverse transcriptase (RT) and blocks RNA- and DNA-dependent reactions of DNA polymerase, destroying the catalytic center of the enzyme. The action of Nevirapine is not competitive with nucleosides and nucleoside triphosphates. At the same time, the drug doesn’t block HIV-2 reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic DNA polymerase (human DNA polymerase alpha, beta, gamma or delta). Viramune is used in the treatment of HIV infection in combination with other antiretroviral drugs, because monotherapy with this drug quickly and almost always develops resistance of the virus, so Viramune therapy should be supplemented with at least two other antiretroviral drugs. Viramune is effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, particularly in
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When Is Tenofovir Used? Tenofovir is the trade name of the medicine Tenofovir disoproxil, a synthetic antiviral drug that is pharmacologically classified as a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. This drug was synthesized in the Czech Republic in the mid-1980s, and in 1997, American scientists proved the effectiveness of Tenofovir against HIV in humans. Tenofovir was originally administered subcutaneously and later became available for oral administration. In addition to treating HIV infection, Tenofovir is also used in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B. The FDA approved Tenofovir for the treatment of HIV in 2001 and for the treatment of hepatitis B in 2008. To date, Tenofovir is available in tablets for oral administration at a dosage of 300 mg of the active ingredient in one tablet. Tablets are film-coated light blue in color, they are oval, biconvex, on the cross section they have a white or almost white, slightly yellowish color. Excipients (magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate and croscarmellose sodium), as well as a number of dyes and fixatives that form a film coating, don’t affect the effect of the drug. When Is Tenofovir Contraindicated? The main contraindication to the use of Tenofovir is hypersensitivity to this
Introduction In this text, we will try to define what generics are and how they differ from their branded prototypes. The issue will be considered on the example of such a popular drug for combating erectile dysfunction as Viagra. Viagra is a medicine based on the active substance sildenafil citrate, the main function of which is the elimination of symptoms of erectile dysfunction, not caused by problems with the level of male sex hormones. Viagra has been the most widely sold ED drug in the world from its inception to the present day. We will provide basic information about the features of the development of Viagra and interesting facts from the history of the creation of this drug. We will also explain the mechanism of action of Viagra generics on the male body and compare it with the original drug. Making a choice in favor of one or another drug to restore potency can be difficult, so the text will provide a list of the benefits of Viagra generics, and special attention will be paid to the availability of these drugs. Lest the picture be one-sided, we will not forget to list the potential side effects and risks associated with
An internal condom, sometimes referred to as a female condom or a femidom, is a kind of contraception used while having vaginal sex to lessen the likelihood of fertilization or an STD (sexually transmitted disease). It was created by Danish doctor Lasse Hessel as a replacement for the male condom for engaging in sexual activities. It is placed inside the vagina of the woman during penetrative intercourse to shield her from contact with seminal or other bodily fluids. However, it must not be used with a male condom because they could stick to each other, rip, or move about (1). Femidoms are constructed of chemically synthesized latex, which is a soft and thin material. Often online pharmacies will offer you a condom along with buying Viagra online. An elastic circle or foam disc is attached to the fixed side of the femidom, which is made of a thin, smooth, loose sheath. Usually, they are available in a variety of size ranges. A medium-sized condom will work for the majority of vaginas; postnatal women should start with a bigger size. The femidom is inserted within the vaginal and held securely during sex with the help of the inner ring or foam
In 2001, a major concern arose that India would soon become the epicenter of the AIDS pandemic, as nearly 4 million Indians were believed to be living with AIDS, despite it being only 1% of the total population. The society’s most marginalized, stigmatized, and even criminalized groups, such as homosexuals, female sex workers, transgenders, and IV drug abusers, and those having multiple sexual partners were the most affected groups by HIV. The India AIDS Initiative, afterwards known as Avahan (meaning “Call to Action” in Sanskrit), was a massive HIV prevention campaign launched by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2003 to stop the spread of HIV in India. Given the increasing prevalence of HIV at the time in the nation with the second-highest population in the world, there was an understandable sense of urgency. For this project, the foundation has three main objectives: Create a large-scale HIV prevention model in India Encourage others to adopt and apply the strategy Promote and spread knowledge both within India and internationally In its first five years, Avahan has effectively established a significant HIV intervention program. Avahan provided tested prevention services — distribution of free condoms, peer education, and free clinics to diagnose
Mary Honeyball, Labour’s Spokesperson on the European Parliament’s Women’s Rights and Gender Equality Committee, has been a vocal supporter of anti-sex work legislation and has written a report to the European Parliament recommending the Swedish Model, which criminalises the purchase of sex. In a blog leading up to the discussion Alex Bryce and other prominent service providers in the UK condemn the move and encourage the Parliament to listen to sex workers. Year of publication: 2014 Theme: Human Rights and Law Research Ethics and Methods Author: Alex Bryce; Rosie Campbell and others Relevant URL: http://www.totalpolitics.com/blog/428222/a-response-to-mary-honeyball.thtml
Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission: can interventions with sex workers alter the course of HIV epidemics in Africa as they did in Asia?
High rates of partner change in ‘upstream’ sex work networks have long been recognized to drive ‘downstream’ transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used a stochastic microsimulation model (STDSIM) to explore such transmission dynamics in a generalized African HIV epidemic. METHODS:: We refined the quantification of sex work in Kisumu, Kenya, from the 4-cities study. Interventions with sex workers were introduced in 2000 and epidemics projected to 2020. We estimated the contribution of sex work to transmission, and modelled standard condom and STI interventions for three groups of sex workers at feasible rates of use and coverage. RESULTS:: Removing transmission from sex work altogether would have resulted in 66% lower HIV incidence (range 54-75%) and 56% lower prevalence (range 44-63%) after 20 years. More feasible interventions reduced HIV prevalence from one-fifth to one-half. High rates of condom use in sex work had the greatest effect, whereas STI treatment contributed to HIV declines at lower levels of condom use. Interventions reaching the 40% of sex workers with most clients reduced HIV transmission nearly as much as less targeted approaches attempting to reach all sex workers. Declines were independent of antiretroviral therapy rollout and robust to realistic changes in parameter values.
The PLRI website was established in 2010 with limited funding which was not sustained so updates were intermittent after 2012. The good news is that important work of maintaining the website will resume in 2014 thanks to a team of independent volunteers. Nothing without us ! Year of publication: 2014 Theme: Research Ethics and Methods
Burden of HIV among female sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This is an important study of the epidemiological literature on female sex workers. It shows us that for the first 30 years HIV affected and killed huge numbers of women who sell sex. Although the article does not make for happy reading we can take great comfort in knowing that the information here is about things that happenned before there was widespread access to ARV treatment. Because antiretroviral treatment both prevents people dying of HIV illnesses and prevents others contracting HIV from positive people who take ARVS the future of the HIV pandemic is very different to this past history. How different will depend, as the authors say, on changing laws around sex work and on expanding prevention programmes, (assuming that by ‘prevention’ they mean ‘prevention, care and treatment’) Cheryl Overs Author Abstract Female sex workers are a population who are at heightened risk of HIV infection secondary to biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors. However, three decades into the HIV pandemic, understanding of the burden of HIV among these women remains limited. We aimed to assess the burden of HIV in this population compared with that of other women of reproductive age. We searched PubMed, Embase, Global Health, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, CINAHL
PLRI WEBSITE NEWS – 2014